in Shoemaker & Cohen. According to the 2019 annual WeChat report, by September 2019, its monthly active users amounted to more than 1.1 billion - the population of China is around 1.4 billion. [213] Several governments impose certain constraints against bias. [7][66], In 1556, the government of Venice first published the monthly Notizie scritte, which cost one gazetta. These criers were sent to read official announcements in marketplaces, highways, and other well-traveled places, sometimes issuing commands and penalties for disobedience. Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. [199], The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has promoted a New World Information and Communication Order, which envisions an international news exchange system involving national news agencies in every country. [87], News for public consumption was at first tightly controlled by governments. Manoff, Robert Karl, and Michael Schudson (eds.). Boyd-Barrett, Oliver, and Tehri Rantanen (eds.). [127], By the turn of the century (i.e., circa 1900), Wolff, Havas, and Reuters formed a news cartel, dividing up the global market into three sections, in which each had more-or-less exclusive distribution rights and relationships with national agencies. [303] It focuses on influencing various news organizations by applying pressures to governmental processes. [198] Critics have accused the global news system of perpetuating cultural imperialism. The line between professionals and amateurs has blurred, and a variety of "pro-am" relationships has emerged. 10–11. The propagation of internet-capable mobile devices has also given rise to the citizen journalist, who provide an additional perspective on unfolding events. [134] Unlike newspapers, and contrary to the sentiments of some of their reporters, the agencies sought to keep their reports simple and factual. 675–676. This is an ABC news special report. [302], News making is the act of making the news or doing something that is considered to be newsworthy. Televisions are densely concentrated in the United States (98% of households), and the average American watches 4 hours of television programming each day. [40], Town criers were a common means of conveying information to citydwellers. noun, plural in form but singular in construction, But a former White House official, speaking on condition of anonymity, said the president still had the Republican Party’s biggest list of small-money donors, a war chest of at least $200 million, and the power to dominate, Plus: Covid-19 contact tracing privacy, a Nissan source code leak, an and more of the week's top security, As Daly ate and anticipated the weekend ahead, presidential assistant Jack McNally entered the mess with distressing, We saw pictures of a flood on the evening, The Difference Between 'Hoard' and 'Horde'. [97] Boosters of new towns felt that newspapers covering local events brought legitimacy, recognition, and community. "[214], Viewed from a sociological perspective, news for mass consumption is produced in hierarchical organizations. News & Media. [44] Niccolò Machiavelli was captured by the Medicis in 1513, following a bando calling for his immediate surrender. At 8:30 the U.S. jobs report hit the wires and showed the country added 245,000 jobs in November, lower than estimates of 432,000 and lower than the prior report of 610,000. [249] Broadly speaking, therefore, news tends to normalize and reflect the interests of the power structure dominant in its social context. in Shoemaker & Cohen. Long-term, personal networks were particularly well suited for transmitting information that required high reliability. Lampe & Ploeckl, "Spanning the Globe" (2014), 247. [58] The court created a Bureau of Official Reports (Jin Zhouyuan) to centralize news distribution for the court. [317][318][319] This history gained widespread attention following the release of the film Anchorman 2. [91] Consequently, many Europeans read newspapers originating from beyond their national borders—especially from the Dutch Republic, where publishers could evade state censorship. The policy of developing Third World media gave way to a global regime of free trade institutions like the World Trade Organization, which also protected the free flow of information across borders. [55], In Europe, during the Middle Ages, elites relied on runners to transmit news over long distances. [61][62], Japan had effective communications and postal delivery networks at several points in its history, first in 646 with the Taika Reform and again during the Kamakura period from 1183–1333. [103] Economic newspapers also became promoters of economic ideologies, such as Keynesianism in the mid-1900s. Tune into ABC at 1 p.m. [284] As a corollary, global media culture may erode the uniqueness and cohesion of national cultures. Special horse-mounted messengers could move information at the speed of 170 kilometers per day. Havas began to use the electric telegraph when it became available. Optics & Timing Are Extremely Important, Insurgency Is Real The News Is Fake – Ep. People rely on the news and constantly seek more of it, to learn new information and to seek reassurance amidst feelings of fear and uncertainty. These can have ranged from smoke and fire signals to advanced systems using semaphore codes and telescopes. The history of the coffee houses is traced from Arab countries, which was introduced in England in the 16th century. Find the latest breaking news and information on the top stories, weather, business, entertainment, politics, and more. Havas began in 1832, using the French government's optical telegraph network. With the new interconnectedness of global media, the experience of receiving news along with a world audience reinforces the social cohesion effect on a larger scale. )[83] The first newspapers emerged in Germany in the early 1600s. [281][285] In this view, the news media constitute a fourth estate which serves to check and balance the operations of government. [4][5] The newness of news gives it an uncertain quality which distinguishes it from the more careful investigations of history or other scholarly disciplines. How to use a word that (literally) drives some pe... Do you know these earlier meanings of words? The reaction of the audience is influential because it can determine the impact that the particular article or newspaper has on the readers. [1][2], Jessica Garretson Finch is credited with coining the phrase "current events" while teaching at Barnard College in the 1890s. [270], Over the centuries, commentators on newspapers and society have repeatedly observed widespread human interest in news. Many news items revolve around periodic press conferences or other scheduled events. [174][192] Bloomberg News created in the 1990s, expanded rapidly to become a player in the realm of international news. The driving force of this new development was the commercial advantage provided by up-to-date news. We have recently listened to Mussolini address his fascist followers from a balcony of Rome; we have heard Hitler speaking over the heads of a devout congregation in the Reichstag, in Berlin, not merely to the President, but to the people, of the United States. News can be delivered more quickly through this method of news as well as accessed more easily. But does the individual reporter always have to be an actual journalist? [183][237] The drive for speedy online postings, some journalists have acknowledged, has altered norms of fact-checking so that verification takes place after publication. Kessler, "Royal Roads" (1995), p. 129. [158], The early internet, known as ARPANET, was controlled by the U.S. Department of Defense and used mostly by academics. In its report Projections of Future Coral Bleaching Conditions, UNEP outlines the links between coral bleaching and climate change. [230] Journalists are also systematically influenced by their education, including journalism school. Further routine is established by assigning each journalist to a beat: a domain of human affairs, usually involving government or commerce, in which certain types of events routinely occur. "News is not history because, for one thing among others, it deals, on the whole, with isolated events and does not seek to relate them to one another either in the form of causal or in the form of, Schudson, "When? This operation was financed mostly with advertising and public relations money. Get the inside scoop on spilling the beans. By the end of the twentieth century, Reuters far outpaced the other news agencies in profits, and became one of the largest companies in Europe. [4][273] Elite members of a society's political and economic institutions might rely on news as one limited source of information, for the masses, news represents a relatively exclusive window onto the operations by which a society is managed. Examples such as Alfred Eisenstaedt's photograph V-J Day in Times Square, Nick Ut's photograph of Phan Thi Kim Phuc and other children running from a napalm blast in Vietnam; Kevin Carter's photograph of a starving child being stalked by a vulture;[195] etc. [288] In 1989, local and global communications media-enabled instant exposure to and discussion of the Chinese government's actions in Tiananmen Square. Fosu, "The Press and Political Participation" (2014), p. 62. [21], Paradoxically, another property commonly attributed to news is sensationalism, the disproportionate focus on, and exaggeration of, emotive stories for public consumption. Studies of tabloid readers found that many of them gain pleasure from seeing through the obviously fake or poorly constructed stories—and get their "real news" from television. At this point, the World Bank took an active role in the governance of many countries, and its authority extended to communications policy. In 1865, Reuters had the scoop on the Lincoln assassination, reporting the news in England twelve days after the event took place. [138], As in previous eras, the news agencies provided special services to political and business clients, and these services constituted a significant portion of their operations and income. Deadlines, Datelines, and History"; in. The term seems to have emerged around the end of the 19th century. Information costs and speed were essential for these decisions. [201] Along these lines, the 1980 MacBride report, "Many Voices, One World", called for an interdependent global news system with more participation from different governments. Mohammed Issa Taha Ali, "What's News in Jordan?" [162], In 1996, the Qatar-owned broadcaster Al Jazeera emerged as a powerful alternative to the Western media, capitalizing in part on anger in the Arab & Muslim world regarding biased coverage of the Gulf War. Distelrath, "Development of the Information and Communication Systems in Germany and Japan" (2000), p. 44. Millions of people in countries such as the United States and South Korea have taken up blogging. Online news has also changed the geographic reach of individual news stories, diffusing readership from city-by-city markets to a potentially global audience.[165]. [268], Public relations releases offer valuable newsworthy information to increasingly overworked journalists on deadline. [41] Different declarations sometimes came with additional protocols; announcements regarding the plague were also to be read at the city gates. The wire services maintained close relationships with their respective national governments, which provided both press releases and payments. "'Fanno bandire, notificare, et expressamente comandare': Town Criers and the Information Economy of Renaissance Florence.". To this end, also, UNESCO formed the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool. [310] In Western societies, television viewing has been so ubiquitous that its total effect on psychology and culture leave few alternatives for comparison. [205] IPS has the most subscribers in Latin America and southern Africa. Five of these models are the Professional Model, Mirror Model, Organizational Model, Political Model, and Civic Journalism Model.[303]. [106] Muigwithania and other newspapers published by indigenous Africans took strong opposition stances, agitating strongly for African independence. [214] Both newspapers and broadcast news programs in the United States are generally expected to remain neutral and avoid bias except for clearly indicated editorial articles or segments. [296] Crises can also increase the effect of the news on social cohesion, and lead the population of a country to "rally" behind its current leadership. [77] Letters describing historically significant events could gain wide circulation as news reports. Chris Paterson, "News Agency Dominance in International news on the Internet". [147], The Soviet Union began a major international broadcasting operation in 1929, with stations in German, English and French. [295], The perception that an ongoing crisis is taking place further increases the significance of live news. [297] The rise of a global news system goes hand in hand with the advent of terrorism and other sensational acts, which have power in proportion to the audience they capture. [186] The Associated Press also maintains a radio network with thousands of subscribers worldwide; it is the sole provider of international news to many small stations. [106] The first newspaper published in a native African language was the Muigwithania, published in Kikuyu by the Kenyan Central Association. [241] Studies of British news organizations estimate that more than 80% of decision-makers are men. 17–18. All four of these broadcast services grew increasingly vitriolic as the European nations prepared for war. [59] Newsletters called ch'ao pao continued to be produced and gained wider public circulation in the following centuries. [282] News thus plays a role in nation-building, the construction of a national identity.[283]. [42] These proclamations all used a standard format, beginning with an exordium—"The worshipful and most esteemed gentlemen of the Eight of Ward and Security of the city of Florence make it known, notify, and expressly command, to whosoever, of whatever status, rank, quality and condition"—and continuing with a statement (narratio), a request made upon the listeners (petitio), and the penalty to be exacted from those who would not comply (peroratio). With the value of international news at a premium, governments, businesses, and news agencies moved aggressively to reduce transmission times. [167], Quantitatively, the internet has massively expanded the sheer volume of news items available to one person. Founded as a newsweekly magazine in 1933, U.S. News transitioned to primarily web-based publishing in 2010. [175] Social media sites, especially Twitter and Facebook, have become an important source of breaking news information and for disseminating links to news websites. Thus by offering free postage to newspapers wishing to exchange copies, the Postal Service Act subsidized a rapidly growing news network through which different stories could percolate. Stories are selected if they have a strong impact, incorporate violence and scandal, are familiar and local, and if they are timely. [145] As in Britain, American news radio avoided "controversial" topics as per norms established by the National Association of Broadcasters. Geographically, 70% of its news reporting concerns Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. [45] Some town criers could be paid to include advertising along with news. “News.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/news. This system was initially used only by the government, taking private communications only at exorbitant prices. Phil MacGregor, "International News Agencies: Global eyes that never blink", in Fowler-Watt & Allan (eds.). [161] CNN, said an executive, would bring a "town crier to the global village". UNESCO encouraged the new states formed from colonial territories in the 1960s to establish news agencies, to generate domestic news stories, exchange news items with international partners, and disseminate both types of news internally. How to use news in a sentence. [239] The digital age can accelerate the problem of circular reporting: propagation of the same error through increasingly reliable sources. By the end of the eighteenth century, the Ottoman Empire's leaders in Istanbul did monitor the European press, but its contents were not disseminated for mass consumption. [221], Some commentators on news values have argued that journalists' training in news values itself represents a systemic bias of the news. A new Chinese coronavirus, a cousin of the SARS virus, has infected hundreds since the outbreak began in Wuhan, China, in December. [12], According to some theories, "news" is whatever the news industry sells. Indeed, personal correspondence sometimes acted only as a convenient channel through which news could flow across a larger network. ), Karen Rothmyer, "What really happened in Biafra? To get the day’s top headlines delivered to your inbox every morning, sign up for our 5 Things newsletter. a report of recent events; previously unknown information; something having a specified influence or effect… [160] CNN news was transmitted via INTELSAT communications satellites. Travelers on pilgrimages to Mecca traditionally stay at caravanserais, roadside inns, along the way, and these places have naturally served as hubs for gaining news of the world. 67–73. [281] In this regard news serves to unify its receivers under the banner of a culture, or a society, as well as into the sub-demographics of a society targeted by their favorite kind of news. 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? [117][118] In the United States, the Associated Press became a news powerhouse, gaining a lead position through an exclusive arrangement with the Western Union company. [53], These connections underpinned an extensive system of news circulation, with handwritten items bearing dates and places of origin. Park, "News as a Form of Knowledge" (1940), p. 678. [136] The wire services brought forth the "inverted pyramid" model of news copy, in which key facts appear at the start of the text, and more and more details are included as it goes along. Positive news stories found memorable by Jordanians featured political events affecting their lives and families—such as the Israeli withdrawal from South Lebanon, and the Israel–Jordan peace treaty. They became even faster, and created an effective optical telegraphy system using flags by day and lanterns and mirrors by night. [194] Euro-American control of the global news system has led to criticism; that events around the world are constantly compared to events like the Holocaust and World War II, which are considered foundational in the West. It may be because we’re drawn to depressing stories without realising, says psychologist Tom Stafford [14][15] From a commercial perspective, news is simply one input, along with paper (or an electronic server) necessary to prepare a final product for distribution. Xinhua became the official news agency of the People's Republic of China in 1949. Test your visual vocabulary with our 10-question challenge! Zhong, "Searching for Meaning" (2006), pp. [146] Radio expanded rapidly across the continent, from 30 stations in 1920 to a thousand in the 1930s. Milner, Stephen J. Prognosticators have suggested that print newspapers will vanish from the U.S. in 5–20 years. [278] Children tend to find the news boring, too serious, or emotionally disturbing. [195] Since the 1960s, a significant amount of news reporting from the Third World has been characterized by some form "development journalism", a paradigm which focuses on long-term development projects, social change, and nation-building. [255] Around the world (and especially, formerly, in the Soviet bloc), international news sources such as the BBC World Service are often welcomed as alternatives to domestic state-run media. The war crimes report has reawakened old traumas for Afghan-Australians. Wechat was initially launched as an instant messaging app by Tencent in January 2011. John Tomlinson, "Cultural Globalization and Cultural Imperialism", in Mohammadi (ed.). In West Africa, news can be spread by griots. ", Motti Neiger, Eyal Zandberg, and Oren Meyers, "Localizing Collective Memory: Radio Broadcasts and the Construction of Regional Memory"; in. [305] Television coverage of the destruction of the World Trade Center in 2001, which repeated the same footage over and over, led to symptoms of trauma experienced across the United States. [218], Even in those situations where objectivity is expected, it is difficult to achieve, and individual journalists may fall foul of their own personal bias, or succumb to commercial or political pressure. 685–686. [239] (This pre-organized news content has been called an information subsidy. 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