Norm referenced standardized tests report students’ performance relative to others. It's a fabulous tool in self-awareness and in creating a top-performer profile. Strengths and Weaknesses of Cognitive Theory Mana Alahmad Faculty of Foreign Languages, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran mana.alahmad60@gmail.com I. Even if individuals believe they are competent, stereotype threat can reduce working memory capacity because individuals are trying to suppress the negative stereotypes. For state tests, the norm group is drawn from the state, whereas for national tests the sample is drawn from the nation. By contrast, over 15% of 15-year-old students in Japan, Singapore and Chinese Taipei achieve this level of performance. Groups that are negatively stereotyped in some area, such as women’s performance in mathematics, are in danger of stereotype threat, i.e. Students with disabilities and English language learners must be included in the testing and be provided with appropriate accommodations. them when it comes time to Þnalize your list of strengths and weaknesses. Stereotype threat seems particularly strong for those individuals who desire to perform well. These assessments are intended to determine whether, on average, students across Canada reach similar levels of performance at about the same age. For example, teachers may have to remove all the posters and charts from the classroom walls, read directions out loud to students using a script, and respond to student questions in a specific manner. If the purpose of using a test is to predict success in a specific subject (e.g. What are some strengths and weaknesses of the proposal?Executive Summary (Benchmark Assessment) Must be written from the nursing point of view who works on a Med/Surg unit in a big hospital (it is a city hospital where many patients are undocumented and uninsured with the corresponding budget). This means that a T-score of 70 is two standard deviations above the mean and so is equivalent to a z-score of 2. As a good teacher, you can’t be negative about your own progress. Explain ways to involve the learner in the assessment process. A realistic recognition of the weaknesses and threats that exist for your effort is the first step to countering them with a robust set of strategies that build upon strengths and opportunities. The assessment used needs to match the purpose of assessing. Some examples of strengths may include good social support, high self-esteem, and insight. Understanding standardized testing is very important for beginning teachers as K-12 teaching is increasingly influenced by the administration and results of standardized tests. A simple way to summarize variability is the range, which is the lowest score subtracted from the lowest score. Some argue that this is a very serious problem with current state testing and Popham (2004) an expert on testing even said: “What a muddleheaded way to run a testing program.” (p. 79). In "Strengths and Limitations of Current ELL Assessment Measures and Assessment Strategies: Reliability, Validity, and Utility," Linda Espinosa explores the current trends and implications in assessment for young ELLs. … methods and will provide an extensive list in the future. mathematics, social studies); for those seeking licenses in early childhood and elementary the tests focus on knowledge needed to teach students of specific grade levels. A grade equivalent score provides an estimate of test performance based on  grade level and months of the school year (Popham, 2005, p. 288). performance on the test has important consequences. 85 and 115). Many testing experts warn that grade equivalent scores should be interpreted with considerable skepticism and that parents often have serious misconceptions about grade equivalent scores. An example of social class bias in a multiple-choice item asked students the meaning of the term field. Of course, if these guesses are incorrect students will have studied content, not on the test and not studied content that is on the test. The Cognitive Abilities Test assesses K-12 students’ abilities to reason with words, quantitative concepts, and nonverbal (spatial) pictures. Each province undertakes its own curriculum based assessments. Observations and rating scales 2. Weakness is diagnosed at an early stage and remediation is made. 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